What soil is suitable for fruit trees and berry bushes
The beginning of autumn is the time of planting fruit and berry crops. Fruit trees can be planted in fall and spring. However, in the spring in the Non-Black Earth Zone, their seedlings still take root and grow better.
But berry crops should be planted in the fall, since in the spring they wake up early, their buds begin to open, and in this form the seedlings take root worse, get sick, and often even die.
When choosing plants and a place for planting them, we always ask ourselves: will the culture on the site be good, will it give a good harvest, will it grow for a long time, please with lush flowering and tasty fruits or berries.
Choosing a planting site at random, without taking into account the condition of the soil, we risk providing the planted tree or shrub with conditions that are not entirely or not at all suitable for its normal development. At the same time, demanding too much on unprepared or unsuitable soil and not getting what we want, we begin to blame the sellers of seedlings, which is most often unreasonable. In this article I will try to talk about the most common fruit and berry crops and their predilections for soil conditions.
Let's start, of course, with the queen of gardens - the apple tree. This culture is light-loving, even a slight shading can lead to excessive dropping of the ovary and, of course, to a decrease in yield.
The apple tree prefers different soils, it can grow quite well on gray forest, sod-podzolic, chernozem soils, but they must all be of light texture and have a neutral or, in extreme cases, slightly acidic reaction.
The apple tree does not tolerate excess water, therefore, it should not be planted in microdepressions. She is also wary of the level of groundwater located closer than 1.5 meters to the soil surface. It is better to plant an apple tree on rested soils, it is possible after vegetable crops, but not after an apple or pear.
Pear is almost as popular as an apple tree. This is a more problematic culture, alas, often freezing in gardens.
To prevent this, choose southern-oriented areas for planting pears, avoid places with prevailing northerly winds.
As for the soil, the pear simply adores moist soils, of course, they should not be swampy, and the groundwater level should not be closer than a meter.
The best soils in terms of composition are loams and sandy loams, weakly podzolized soils, leveled without micro-depressions and depressions.
Juicy and sweet cherries, which are now receiving a lot of attention, like a pear, love a lot of light and are not particularly winter-hardy - it is better not to plant them in depressions. Cherry loves well-ventilated places - there it is less likely to get sick, and the soil loves fertile, light mechanical composition, with high air permeability and a neutral reaction. Light and medium loams are what she needs, and with annual fertilization, yields will be large and constant.
Sweet and juicy plum is a kind of northern peach. She, like her handsome brother, adores warmth and sunshine. In the shade, even for a short-term, you should not expect a good harvest, but if you plant a seedling on the south side in moist, loamy soil with a thick fertile layer and a neutral reaction of the environment, then the plum will surely give you a rich harvest of delicious fruits. It is afraid of high groundwater discharge, it will be better if they are no closer than 1.5 meters from the soil surface.
Sun berry - sea buckthorn in any region prefers the sunniest place, in the shade and grows poorly, and yields low yields.
The best soils for sea buckthorn are fertile with plenty of moisture, light, with a groundwater level no closer than a meter to the soil surface.
When planting sea buckthorn in place after uprooting the garden, avoid places with previously grown stone fruit crops.
To avoid the accumulation of common pests in the soil, do not plant it next to strawberries or raspberries. Sea buckthorn in any cultivation region necessarily needs a pollinator, usually at least two male forms must be planted on 5-6 female plants.
Recently, hazelnuts are also becoming popular - a tree of longevity.
He can be taken on the site as a well-lit place, and slightly shaded, but the soil should be well-cultivated, loose and very fertile.
There is a regularity in the ratio of walls and pulp - on coarse, poorly nutritious soils with a lack of moisture, pulp in nuts is much less. The best soils are loams.
When growing hazelnuts in the Black Earth region, try to select soils that are sufficiently aerated with a groundwater level of at least a meter.
Chokeberry is considered an excellent remedy for high blood pressure, everything is simple here - this culture is completely undemanding to soils, has high winter hardiness, which allows it to be grown in regions of different climatic conditions on most types of soils. The only thing I want to note is that you need to remember: chokeberry responds in its own way to too nutritious soils or to the introduction of large doses of fertilizers. There will be a sharp increase in crown growth against the background of a rather strong, up to complete absence, decrease in yield.
Another kings of the garden, only from another tier - among the bushes - are red and black currants. Unfortunately, over the years of their cultivation, these crops have accumulated many pests and diseases, so, alas, not a single season can do without treatments. In order to somehow reduce the amount of spraying harmful to humans, try to plant currants on clean soils. It is better if the predecessor is pure steam.
Chernozem soils are preferable for currants, well-heated, aerated, without stagnation of melt or rain water, because this causes a disease with powdery mildew. In regions with a predominance of gray forest soils, pay attention to acidity - it must be at a pH level of 5.5. Try not to plant currants near gooseberries or raspberries.
This culture is quite undemanding, drought-resistant, prefers breathable soils with a groundwater level of no closer than a meter, it feels quite well in any region and gives rich harvests on any type of soil. There is reliable information that the maximum yields were achieved even on highly acidified soils, gooseberries cannot tolerate, perhaps only excess moisture. Therefore, in regions with excessive moisture, it is necessary to arrange drainage during planting.
She, like the gooseberry, is not a very demanding culture on the soil. At the same time, it is quite aggressive, its root shoots quickly spreads over the site, delivering a lot of inconvenience to gardeners. "Unnecessary" places on the site are often allocated for raspberries, but this is biologically incorrect. Of course, raspberries will bear fruit there too, because even in conditions of insufficient illumination, quite tolerable yields can be obtained, however, better fruiting and a fairly good development of the culture can be achieved only in areas whose soils are rich in nutrients, are permeable, light and have a slightly acidic reaction of the environment.
A pleasant plant - it blooms beautifully, gives useful fruits.
This culture is just for those regions where there is an abundance of rainy days in the season. Viburnum loves moisture, gives abundant growth, a good harvest.
Of course, you should not plant it directly in a swamp, but it will grow well near a reservoir. A good option if the soil allotted for viburnum will be well cultivated and fertile.
Viburnum can grow well in the shade, but it is better to take well-lit areas under it.
Recently, thanks to the work of breeders, the demand for rowan fruits has also revived. This crop, which is relatively undemanding to soil conditions, is ideal for regions whose soil composition does not differ in fertility.
Rowan loves light, but it can withstand a little shading with dignity. High-quality mountain ash is slightly less winter-hardy than its wild-growing sister, but even varieties can withstand frosts down to -40oС. The ideal soils for mountain ash are calcareous, scarce and even drained marshy soils.
It's a great culture, a baby sweet berry. Stops its mass distribution, perhaps, only its high growth and the difficulty of collecting ripe fruits arising with age.
Irga can grow and give good yields on all types of soil.
It can grow even in rocky terrain, depressions and depressions are not terrible for irga, the soils are acidic and too dry. It can be planted on the periphery of plots in regions where winters are too cold.
Retaining snow in the area and holding back the gusts of northern winds, irga can also serve as protection for more thermophilic plants.
Close to irga on demand and useful bird cherry. This crop, which is now given only the place of decorative, will grow on any type of soil without fertilization and irrigation in almost all regions of Russia. One should be wary of only very swampy soils, although bird cherry loves moisture.
The dogwood, loved by many, prefers well-cultivated soils, rich in organic matter and minerals. In regions where soils are poor, sandy or clayey, fertilization should be taken care of in advance. The planting pattern is also different for the dogwood: it depends, first of all, on the fertility of the soil. So on soils characterized by increased nutritional value, it is necessary to plant plants less often, on poor soils - more often.
The thorny plant, which is often used to create an impenetrable hedge, prefers soils of various textures.
Barberry grows and gives good yields on loose loam, sandy soils and leached chernozems.
Preferring open places without shade, it is highly wind-resistant and resistant to low negative temperatures.
In regions with highly compacted soils, small amounts of peat are allowed when planting.
Delicate blueberries simply adore sunny places, prefers acidic soils with plenty of moisture. In regions with harsh climates and sandy soils, it is necessary to shelter plants for the winter. The best soils for blueberries are considered to be peaty-sandy and peaty-loamy, well-drained with a high humus content. Blueberries love abundance and even an abundance of moisture, which is not tolerated by another widespread culture - strawberries.
Even one flooding with rain or melt water can be enough to kill all plants. The best soils for strawberries are structural, highly moisture-absorbing, with a high content of humus and nutrients and a reaction of the environment close to neutral.
Does not like excess moisture and early honeysuckle. However, this culture is quite unpretentious and works well on soils of any mechanical composition, therefore it is grown in all regions of Russia. With its high winter hardiness, honeysuckle can easily endure severe winters on soils of heavy texture in the northern regions.
Actinidia and Schisandra
In conclusion, I would like to talk about two wonderful liana-like crops, the fruits of which are characterized by a high content of vitamin C - the vitamin of health and longevity. These are actinidia and lemongrass. Both cultures are lianas, and therefore must be grown on a trellis.
They like good enough lighting, drained soils, characterized by a slightly acidic reaction, which are not characterized by flooding.
It is better to avoid micro-depressions and depressions, especially in regions with a harsh climate, because in such areas there are usually lower temperatures, which can be detrimental for rather weakly winter-resistant crops.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin,
member of the R&D Academy
• Soil - its properties, composition, absorption capacity
• Soil structure: five basic layers
• How to reduce soil acidity
• How to determine the soil characteristics by herbs and flowers and much more
Removing unwanted vegetation
Before getting rid of weeds and overgrowth and proceeding with the complete cleaning of the soil, assess the characteristics and condition of the soil by the presence of aggressors who have captured it. After all, weeds are the simplest "pointers" to the reaction and characteristics of the soil. So, self-seeding poppy and coltsfoot indicate alkaline soils, and tricolor violet and sorrel indicate acidic soils. Dandelion and buttercup creeping settle in areas where there are problems with dampness, and nitrogen-rich soils are adored by invaders such as wheatgrass, willow and nettles.
Weeds should be identified for another purpose: you will have to deal with different wild herbs in different ways. Seed weeds are spread by active spreading of seeds, but root weeds have almost indestructible roots, which are not so easy to cope with. The type of weeds directly determines the chemical means of control, since the herbicides are selected according to the type of unwanted vegetation.
First of all, you need to take care of the shrubs and trees intended for removal, their root growth. This is a job that just can't be done. And it is also the most laborious of all procedures on the site, often requiring the use of technology. Only after you have dealt with the most significant problem in every sense, you can proceed to weeds and soil cleaning.
Neglected site before cleaning weeds and unwanted vegetation. © tidygardens The site after cleaning from weeds and plant debris. © tidygardens
Three methods of weed control:
If we are talking about a small area, then you can manually remove all weeds and roots from the soil. Where weeds are moderately widespread, in clean areas it is enough to loosen and not dig up the soil; in large neglected areas, sometimes rhizome sampling will have to be carried out after cultivating the soil with equipment for complete recovery. But if there is an opportunity to cope without deep digging and with less turning of the soil, destruction of soil layers, then it must be used. Clear small areas and break the entire problem area into fragments. At first, it is better to mow a tall grass stand; with less neglect of the site, you can do without mowing.
The use of systemic and highly specialized herbicides and biological products against weeds allows you to cover large areas and reduce the amount of effort. The drugs are selected taking into account environmental factors, side effects, the desired result, the timing and number of treatments and applied, strictly following the manufacturer's instructions. But still, plant residues and roots from the soil will need to be removed manually.
Instead of several treatments with herbicides, you can carry out just one to stop the growth of weeds, simplify the process of mechanical tillage, or choose another method of suppressing grass growth before mechanical "cleaning" - covering with a thick film, a high layer of mulch with further cleaning of the soil from roots and debris by hand.
Together with weeds, stones and other debris are necessarily removed from the soil.
Even the best sampling of roots and plant debris from the soil will still not save you from work in the future. But the regular and timely removal of young weeds in subsequent years will help you forget about their invasion forever.
Site before cleaning. © scgardening Site after cleaning. © scgardening
Drawing up a tree planting plan
Apricot, plum, peach, sweet cherry and other light-loving plants should be located in the south or southwest of the site. If the site is small, then on the south side there should be shorter plants.
There are two styles of garden: regular and landscaped.
In a regular garden, plants should form symmetrical shapes. They can be arranged in a row or in a checkerboard pattern. In a hilly area, the crop should be planted across the slope.
A landscaped garden looks more natural, so the planting rules are more free - only allelopathy should be guided. If there are irregularities on the site, this type of design is ideal and will create a natural effect.
Selection of tree species
The next thing to do is decide which trees and how many you want to plant. Care must be taken to ensure that neighboring plants can pollinate each other.
It is also important to plant trees that bear fruit at different times in order to harvest longer.
Distance between trees
For trees to grow well, they need to be planted away not only from each other, but also from buildings. For example, the distance from a building to a cherry or plum tree should not be less than 3 meters.
Rows of trees grafted onto tall rootstocks should be spaced 5–6 m apart. Trees should be planted every 4–5 m. If the distance is less, the yield will deteriorate significantly.
Trees in the garden. Illustration for this article is used under a standard license © dachnyedela.ru
However, plants with a small crown can be planted every 0.5–1 m. If you want to alternate trees with berry bushes, within one row, the distance between them must be increased by 1–2 m. Between such mixed rows, the distance should be 1 -1.5 m.
Autumn fertilizers - how to feed the garden, vegetable garden and flower garden at the end of the season
Fertilizers applied in the fall are extremely important. After all, they help plants to withstand adverse weather conditions. We have collected useful information about what fertilizers to apply in the fall to help the garden, vegetable garden, flower garden and lawn overwinter.
In the wettest season of the year, plants are fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, which increase frost resistance and help resist diseases. It is not recommended to use nitrogen fertilizers during this period, as they provoke the growth of young shoots, which often do not have time to ripen before the cold weather and as a result freeze, at the same time causing damage to the entire plant.
- Autumn fertilizers for the garden
- Autumn fertilizers for berry bushes
- Autumn fertilizers for fruit trees
- Autumn fertilizers for conifers
- Autumn fertilizers for strawberries (garden strawberries)
- Autumn fertilizers for roses
- Autumn fertilizers for lilies
- Autumn fertilizers for the lawn
- Autumn fertilizers for the garden
- Organic fertilizers for the vegetable garden
- Siderata as an autumn fertilizer
- Mineral autumn fertilizers for the garden
3. High groundwater
When planning to plant certain fruit crops, it is worth finding out the level of occurrence of groundwater. Typically, tall and durable trees on seed stock have a deep root system that extends down more than 2 meters. And if the groundwater in your area is located higher, then most of the time these roots will get wet in the water, rot and suffocate, and the tree itself somehow exists - there is no time for the harvest.
For stone breeds, you can make an indulgence of up to 1.5 meters, and berry bushes - even less.
Read about the successful experience of growing pears in an area with high groundwater in the article “Why I Grow Pears Only on Quince Rootstock”.
Do I need to dig in fruit trees in the fall - Summer cottage, garden, vegetable garden, indoor plants
In the fall, it's time to take care of the condition of the personal plot and garden. The creation of comfortable wintering conditions for fruit trees is the primary task of gardeners.
What does garden maintenance in the fall include? On the eve of the winter cold, after the leaves have completely fallen off, you can start sanitary pruning, thinning, and reducing the crowns of perennial trees to 4-4.5 m.
It is better to postpone detailed anti-aging pruning until spring.
Why? First, there are concerns about the possibility of freezing of trees. Secondly, the cuts of perennial branches of large diameter can become a source of frost damage even when they are treated with garden varnish or oil paint. In the fall, a thorough inspection of fruit trees is carried out, and dry, damaged branches are removed.
Together with the removal of sick, dry branches, trees are cleared of dried fruits on the branches, nests, egg-laying pests are burned, growths are cut, leaf litter, root shoots, where many species of aphids have accumulated, are removed.
Which manure is better?
Waste from livestock is used alone or mixed with bedding of straw, leaves, sawdust or peat (bedding manure). Its quality depends on the storage method, the type of animal and the composition of the feed.
The most popular in the gardening industry - bovine manure. It contains all the components necessary for plants in optimal proportions, so it is considered universal and suitable for all types of soil. It is usually moderately moist and not oversaturated with nitrogen.
IN pig manure contains a large amount of nitrogen, but it is poor in calcium and acidifies the soil. Therefore, before use, the fertilizer must be diluted or used rotten. It is most often applied in greenhouses where high humidity is maintained. It is not recommended to use this fertilizer on heavy clay soils. In addition, it has a too pungent smell, so it is better to combine it with other organics.
A valuable fertilizer is also considered horse manure, however, it is less common (horse farms are not everywhere). Compared to other animal waste, it is drier and looser, less "aggressive" due to the lower acid content, and decomposes and "warms up" the soil faster. It is most often used as a raw material for heating greenhouses, greenhouses or greenhouses. This is a real biofuel for creating warm beds!
A strong and fast-acting natural fertilizer for beds is considered avian droppings (especially chicken and pigeon droppings). In terms of the content of nutrients, it surpasses the waste of cattle. Most bird excrement is suitable for vegetables, fruit trees and berry bushes.
Other types of manure - rabbit, goat, sheep - they are used much less often. When using them on the site, observe the same rules as when "working" with the organic matter described above.
MULCH: species and compatibility with other plants
Mulch is a real find for gardeners, gardeners and florists. But mulch is mulch. And only the right material can really benefit your garden.
Some plants will gratefully accept sawdust to their "feet", while others are contraindicated in bark. How to understand who and what kind of mulch is right for you?
The cut grass is suitable for many plants, especially for:
The main thing is to use the mulching material correctly. Before use, you need to dry the grass in the sun, and lay the mulch in a layer of at least 5 cm.
Sawdust mulch is perfect for:
However, do not forget that they acidify the soil. Therefore, a couple of weeks before use, mix them with lime (for 1 bucket of sawdust - 150 g of lime).
Peat is also used as mulch, but only horse peat. This mulch is suitable for garlic, under-winter sowing (the layer should be 5-6 cm) and woody plants (the mulch layer is at least 7 cm).
The needles are perfect for mulching strawberries and other vegetables that are prone to gray rot. And also for:
Fallen leaves are suitable for mulching winter crops of garlic and onions.
The bark is suitable for almost all plants, especially for:
For perennials, the mulch layer should be 3-5 cm, for tree crops - 5-7 cm. Important: you cannot mulch tomatoes with bark!
Green manure and straw are suitable for:
● mulching of coniferous tree trunks. Straw mulch is best used for plants with a height of at least 12 cm.Gravel, pebbles and stones are suitable for:
● mulching of near-trunk circles
It is better to mulch low perennials and alpine plants with small stones with a layer of 2-3 cm. Large material is more suitable for mulching trees, shrubs and roses with a layer of 5 cm.
Humus and compost mulch is suitable for all garden plants:
● for perennial crops, mulch from humus or compost should be laid out in a layer of 3-5 cm
● for woody plants - 5-7 cm.
Nutshell mulch (walnuts, pine nuts, pecans and hazelnuts) is suitable for:
The layer of shell mulch for woody plants should be 7-10 cm, and for perennials - 3-5 cm.
Sphagnum moss is considered an ideal mulch for conifers, roses, gardenias and azaleas. The layer of mulch for conifers should be 7-10 cm, and for flowers - 5-6 cm.
Unlike other types of mulch, wood chips consume very little nitrogen and are excellent for:
● large perennial crops (3-5 cm layer).
However, only rotted wood chips, aged for at least two to three years, are suitable as mulch! Otherwise, the soil may be deprived of nutrients.