Growing hippeastrum: preparation and planting of bulbs
Star on the windowsill
In the middle of winter, on the windowsills of many apartments and in the offices of companies, you can see beautiful hippeastrum flowers, very similar to lilies. There is snow outside the window, and in the apartment where this wonderful flower grows, it is already blowing in the spring.
At this time of the year, not very many indoor plants please with their flowering, therefore hippeastrum is the best fit for creating a spring mood in your apartment, especially since this flower is suitable for beginner florists, because there is nothing difficult to care for.
Hippeastrum (Hippeastrum) belongs to the family amaryllidaceae (Amaryllidaceae)... Genus name Hippeastrum comes from two Greek words - hipperos (cavalier, horseman) and astron (star). Until 1954, there was confusion in the name of this flower: some called it amaryllis, others - hippeastrum, and even now in stores we constantly see the same thing. Actually these are two completely different plants.
The homeland of the hippeastrum is the tropics and subtropics of South America (Brazil, Bolivia, Peru), and the homeland of the amaryllis is South Africa. Their differences are that hippeastrum blooms in March-April, and amaryllis - in August-October. In the hippeastrum, the flower arrow is hollow inside, and there are usually four (maximum six) large flowers on the peduncle, and in the amaryllis, the flower arrow is dense with a large number of flowers - there are up to 12 of them on the peduncle.
Amaryllis flowers have a faint aroma, they are tubular in shape, white or pink-lilac in color, it has no other colors. And the flowers of the hippeastrum are odorless, and they can be either tubular or open with a huge color palette.
In 1954, the International Botanical Congress decided to clarify the names of these plants - it recommended to call the American plant hippeastrum, and the African plant amaryllis. But, unfortunately, there is still confusion in stores. On packages with hippeastrum, they still continue to write amaryllis.
Purchase and disinfection of planting material
Most often, hippeastrum bulbs come to Russia from Holland in December-January without soil. Before planting, the bulb must be carefully examined for diseases or pests, especially if it has just been bought in a store. Often already diseased bulbs with red dots or streaks are sold.
This is a fungal disease of the hippeastrum - "Red burn"... It is better not to purchase such planting material. I always remove old, dry covering scales from the bulbs - there may be pests or diseases under them. I also remove old dry roots, and clean the bottom of the bulb from old scales. All of it should be white. Before planting, the bulb must be disinfected for 20 minutes in a solution of Aktara from pests and 30 minutes in a solution of Maxim from diseases (according to the instructions).
Sometimes you can find on sale hippeastrum bulbs planted in a coconut substrate with a flower arrow that appears or already flowering plants. After flowering, they must be immediately transplanted into a new pot with nutritious soil, removing the coconut substrate from the roots, since it is dead soil. It is advisable to disinfect the bulb as well. The roots of the hippeastrum are long, white. But, as a rule, during flowering, they are just beginning to appear. The hippeastrum takes the strength for flowering from the mother bulb. Therefore, it will not suffer from disinfection.
Soil preparation and planting of bulbs
The soil for the hippeastrum needs to be prepared nutritious and very loose. I compose it from sifted soil from a greenhouse, sifted compost, coconut substrate (necessarily washed), vermiculite, AVA fertilizer (powder). I mix all this well and fill pots with it, on the bottom of which a layer of sphagnum moss has already been placed as drainage.
Drainage is required. I believe that sphagnum moss is most suitable for this, since it absorbs excess moisture after watering, and then gradually gives it to the plants. This is especially important if I do not always have time to water the flowers on time when I leave for the country. I do not put other mineral fertilizers into the soil, otherwise the roots may be burned (tested by bitter experience).
I prepare the soil ten days before planting and fill the pots with it. After filling the pot with soil, I water it with Aktara's solution (according to the instructions) to destroy soil pests, since the earth is alive from the summer cottage. I never buy purchased soil, except for Greenworld soil mixture (for flowering plants). It can also be added a little to potting potting soil.
In floriculture guides, it is advised to plant the bulbs of hippeastrum first in a small pot, and after flowering, when the plant grows long roots (a clod of earth with a bulb then rises from the pot), transplant into a pot of larger diameter. I plant the bulbs immediately in such pots, where the hippeastrum will grow all season. I do this because of time constraints. But the diameter of the pot depends on the size of the bulb.
I plant the bulbs with a diameter of 10 cm in pots with a diameter of at least 15 cm and a height of 15-16 cm. It is impossible to completely cover the bulb with earth, it should protrude from it by half. After planting the bulbs, I water the soil with Extrasol solution (2-3 ml per liter of water) to restore the soil microflora, it is also a good growth stimulator. You can only water the ground, you cannot pour water on the bulb.
The first time after planting the bulb in a pot, water should be moderately so that rot does not appear, the roots of the bulb are still quite small.
In some hippeastrum, a flower arrow first appears, and only after flowering leaves form. This is more common with newly purchased bulbs. A few years later, a flower arrow and leaves appear on the same bulb at the same time.
In an apartment where it is hot, hippeastrum blooms for no more than one week. You can prolong flowering by placing the pot in a cool room, or it is worth planting the bulbs at different times, for example, with an interval of two weeks.
After flowering, with the appearance of leaves, I begin to feed the plants once every two weeks, and from May - once a week. After flowering, the bulb has used up nutrients, and it needs to be heavily fed so that it recovers and blooms well next season. The leaves become long and large, like a belt. They are not decorative, so usually in mid-April I rearrange the pots from the windowsill on the table next to the window.
In addition, at this time the bright sun is shining, due to which burns in the form of light brown spots may appear on the leaves. I used to put the pots on the glassed-in balcony, where it is cooler than in the room, but over time I refused this. The fact is that the “red burn” disease appeared on the bulbs and leaves. This may have been caused by fluctuations in daytime and nighttime temperatures. This disease spreads through the air and manifests itself on the plant when the air temperature is below + 18 ° C. And in the morning hours it gets very hot on my balcony.
Hippeastrum are real gluttons, and most of all they like feeding with organic fertilizers. Therefore, once every two weeks I feed them with a solution of liquid horse manure (I bring a ready-made solution from the dacha), and next week I feed them with a liquid solution of Finnish fertilizer Kemira universal.
I only have small reserves for liquid feeding. This fertilizer is not sold in our stores now, which is a pity. Unfortunately, we have no analogues of the Finnish Kemir universal fertilizer in Russia, no matter what the Russian producers of fertilizer with the same name say.
I feed the plants until the end of July only in hot weather, when the apartment is warm. Since August, I stop feeding. The main task of such dressings is to grow the bulb as large as possible. The larger the bulb, and the more leaves it has, the larger the flowers will be and the more flower arrows there will be. By the way, their number can be determined already in September. Flower buds are laid every four leaves. The number of leaves must be divided by 4 - this is how many peduncles there will be in the next season.
This is why the hippeastrum should be well fed throughout the summer. My flowers had a maximum of three flower arrows. Moreover, on small bulbs (about 7-8 cm in diameter), there are no more than four flowers on the peduncle, and on huge bulbs (12-13 cm in diameter and more), there are six flowers on the peduncle. But on unsorted hippeastrum (with tubular orange flowers), flower arrows can appear on a large baby bulb. Bulbs with a diameter smaller than 7 cm in varietal hippeastrum, as a rule, do not bloom.
Read the next part. Growing hippeastrum: care, reproduction and pests →
Olga Rubtsova, florist,
candidate of geographical sciences,
Photo by the author
Indoor flower hippeastrum
POPULAR ROOM FLOWER HIPPEASTRUM HYBRID
Hello dear friends!
New amazing varieties of hippeastrum, which have appeared in the past few years, have attracted a lot of attention from not only professional flower growers, but also among amateurs, since this crop is very easy to grow and does not cause much trouble to care for.
This plant belongs to the Amaryllis family, which combines many different hybrids obtained by crossing the Amaryllis and Hippeastrum species.
The flowering time of this bulbous plant is from the end of winter to the end of spring. Hippeastrum has a much larger flower shoot than amaryllis. Its large, green, linear leaves are collected at the base of a thick bulb in an umbrella.
The slightly pointed flower petals can be colored in various shades of pink, white, green and red. Large inflorescences are located on a high and hollow peduncle.
This flower easily tolerates any temperature and humidity in rooms, but is very demanding on lighting.
The indoor flower hippeastrum is propagated by children, bulbs and seeds. When propagated by seeds, the traits of the parent plants may not be fully transmitted. Young plants obtained from seeds bloom in the third, and sometimes in the fourth year. In order for the seeds to set, the flowers are artificially pollinated.
Hippeastrum is grown in earthen mixtures of different composition, in places well lit by the sun. During the entire growing season, they are watered and fed. After the intensive growth is over, feeding is stopped, and watering is slowly reduced.
At the end of September, dried leaves are cut off, watering is carried out less often - once a month, while water is poured into a tray. Such watering is needed so that the roots do not dry out and die out.
It is worth remembering that the soil in containers with bulbs at rest should be dry to the touch. Containers with resting bulbs are stored in a cool and dry place at a temperature of seven to ten degrees Celsius.
In the period from December to February, containers with bulbs are placed in a warm place (20-25 degrees) and do not water until the flower arrow hatches.
Immediately after that, the containers are moved to a sunlit place and poured into a pan so that the earthen lump is completely saturated with water. The plant is watered moderately enough, until the flower arrow grows to 7-10 centimeters.
This is due to the fact that with abundant watering, along with the flower arrow, leaves develop quickly, and flowers may not appear. After reaching the flower arrow of a certain size, watering is increased.
When a month has passed after the end of flowering, the hippeastrum is transferred into fresh soil, consisting of humus, sod and leafy soil with a small amount of sand. Transplants are carried out once every few years. Plants do not need to be replanted annually, but the top layer must be changed.
This plant propagates by seed and by dividing the bulbs. Reproduction by dividing the bulbs is a faster way to obtain a large amount of hippeastrum planting material.
To do this, the onion is cut so that on each part of the onion there is a piece of the bottom and scales, the cut sides are sprinkled with chopped coal or a rot preparation.
Parts of the bulb are placed in containers with loose, permeable soil, and after 6 to 7 weeks, very small bulbs appear, which are planted in small pots the following spring.
To grow indoor flower hippeastrum will not be difficult and will not take much time, but bright large flowers will add mood and joy. See you!
Proper care of the hippeastrum
A prerequisite for the successful cultivation of Hippeastrum is a sunny location. Insufficient light can cause the plant to bend and fall.
The bulb must not be in flooded soil. Therefore, before planting, you need to take care of the drainage. The water should be warm and infused. It is advisable to prevent the formation of cracks from excessive drying out of the soil.
During the period of active growth, the soil must be constantly provided with moisture. If by chance a large amount of water gets into the ground and the roots are flooded, you need to immediately change the soil.
It is especially necessary to feed the plant if the leaves and flowers have become faded. Fertilizer can be applied every two weeks throughout the summer season. This will help prepare the plant for a new growth period next year.
Room temperature is ideal for the plant. Unlike representatives of the family grown in the garden, it is undesirable to leave Hippeastrum in an unheated room. For long-term preservation of flowers, you can move the pot to a cooler place.
As a rule, replanting the plant is necessary when the original flowerpot has become very small. In order not to flood the soil or break the stems of the culture, it is necessary to provide more space. There is no need to replant every year or remove tubers from the container during winter dormancy. Florist forums often recommend taking a slightly larger container and using good quality compost for a successful transplant.
Important. Remember to leave the top of the tuber above the ground when planting. Otherwise, the plant may rot.
What to do when hippeastrum fades?
After wilting, the plant is often thrown away, but with proper care, the Hippeastrum will bloom for many more years.
When the stem with the flower dies off completely, it is necessary:
- Remove the inflorescence from the bulb.
- Place the plant on a lighted windowsill.
- In the summer, you can keep the plant in a sunny place. Periodically it is necessary to make top dressing.
- When the leaves begin to turn yellow in the fall, you need to transfer the flower to a closed room and let the top layer of soil dry. During this time, all the leaves will completely fall off.
- Watering must not be stopped. This will stimulate new growth in the next growing season.
In a few months, the hippeastrum will sprout new stems.
You can learn how to care for a plant during a dormant period in the video:
Diseases and pests
Stagonosporosis poses a great danger to the plant. First, spots appear on the leaves and stems, which spread and cause complete death. For treatment, you will need to use a weak solution of phytosporin or foundationazol. Recovery can take over two years.All this time, it is necessary to regularly spray the tubers, leaves and soil before planting.
Pests affecting the culture:
- root onion mite.
To combat insects, it is necessary to use chemicals intended for bulbous plants.
Between the choice of colors and planting, you need to perform a number of important preparatory procedures, on which the success of the whole project of landscaping the balcony directly depends. Let's consider how to get high-quality seed and create the necessary conditions for its growth.
The first step is to decide when to plant tulips on the balcony: if you want to get the first flowers in March-April, you need to start work in the fall - in September-October. First you need to prepare the bulbs - you can dig them up in your garden or buy them at a flower shop.
The planting material should be large, full-bodied and heavy - with a diameter of 5 cm and a weight of at least 30-40 g. The large sizes of the bulbs indicate that they have accumulated a lot of macronutrients, minerals and other useful substances that will provide tulips with rapid growth already in first months of life.
Note! The body, bottom and scales of the bulbs must be intact - the slightest damage to the material may indicate a deformation of the point of growth of the flower.
Bulbs must be large and not damaged.
The selected material must be dried in stages: one week at a temperature of + 32-34 ° C, two months at 20-22 ° C, 4 weeks at 14-16 ° C. Then the bulbs must be placed in a cardboard box or gauze bag and left on the balcony or in the basement until disembarkation.
Working with soil and containers
Planting tulips on the balcony in autumn cannot be done in clean soil - you need to prepare a special substrate. Mix:
- humus - 1 part
- sand - 1 part
- black soil - 2 parts
- peat or ash - 10% of the total mass of chernozem.
After that, prepare the previously selected pots and boxes - place a drainage cushion on the bottom: a layer of gravel or small ceramic chips. This pillow will perform two functions at once: maintain the required humidity regime at the plant roots and prevent the substrate from clogging the drainage holes.
A drainage pillow must be poured into the bottom of the container
Garden flowers gladiolus
Hello dear friends!
A casual visitor to a large Botanical Garden or a flower exhibition will surely be surprised to see the names of the authors on the plates near the most graceful, beautiful, elite specimens of cacti, succulents, roses, royal irises or peonies - all the names will be there. male.
Yes, mainly men are engaged in breeding, reproduction, zoning of varieties and collecting these plants, and garden flowers gladiolus also belong to the hobby of gentlemen, not lovely ladies. Gladiolus is the flower of the knights: it symbolizes loyalty and nobility.
Brief description of gladioli
Gladiolus is a perennial plant of the Iris family. Its height reaches one and a half meters. There are about 5000 varieties of gladioli, but about 250 constantly renewing species are cultivated and distinguished. Gladiolus reproduces by corms and is endowed with an important biological feature for a florist - an unlimited spectrum of its flowers. The plant loves light, moisture and nutritious soil.
Preparing the soil for gladioli
The soil for planting gladioli requires good preparation: it must be drained, and in the fall it must be dug onto a shovel's bayonet and a combined complex of organic fertilizer with superphosphate must be added. For planting gladiolus, sandy loam soils and loam of a loose structure with normal water exchange are best suited. Clay soils need to be dug up in advance by half with coarse sand, if possible, "stirring" the top layer with fine hay and ash. On humus-rich, soft soil, gladiolus grows and blooms to the maximum, in full force of its varietal characteristics. Lowlands and marshy soils are not suitable for planting, and areas where peppers, carrots, beets, cabbage, asters and other gladioli were previously cultivated are also unsuitable. It is better to form plantings on the former ridges of leguminous representatives or on new, prepared areas.
Preparing gladiolus bulbs
A month before planting, the bulbs are removed from storage, sorted according to quality and examined for signs of disease. Healthy the tuber has a flat and smooth surface. If the bulbs are affected by scab, you need to cut off the affected areas and burn with a solution of potassium permanganate. During distillation, keep them separate. Subsequently, these tubers should be planted apart from healthy bulbs. Whole, strong tubers are freed from scales and laid out in a sunny, dry place so that they germinate. Bulbs ready for planting should have 1 sprout. Immediately before planting (about a day), the tubers should be briefly soaked in a disinfecting adaptogen, for example, in the preparation Fitosporin-M, Maxim or in potassium permanganate.
Planting gladiolus bulbs
From April to the end of May, corms are planted in dried soil, heated to 10-15 ° C.
They dig up the earth ahead of time, bring in urea and dig grooves up to 15 cm deep (focusing on the size of the bulbs). At least 35 cm of space is left between the grooves. Sand 2 fingers thick is poured at the bottom of the grooves in order to protect the corms from infection with soil pathogenic fungi and to facilitate digging in the fall with the children. After laying the planting material, the grooves are buried, mulched with humus and covered with polyethylene. If already sprouted bulbs are planted, then the shoots will germinate in a week.
The plant loves regular watering, especially at the beginning of flowering. After watering garden flowers gladiolus spud. Watering is carried out without soaking the stems in the morning and in sunny, dry weather. Against pests - thrips and other parasitic insects, twice a summer gladiolus is sprayed with the drug "Decis" or "Iskra".
Growing Exibition onions through seedlings
Growing onions by seedling has always been troublesome and difficult, but in the case of the Dutch giant, this method will allow you to achieve the maximum size of the bulbous heads.... If you strictly adhere to all the recommendations for cultivation, then the growing season of Exhibishen will not exceed 80 days.
As already mentioned, a special land is important for this variety. It is quite possible to prepare the soil at home, for this it is necessary to mix humus, turf and rotted manure in certain proportions (9: 10: 1). Any seedling container is filled with this mixture and onion seeds prepared in advance are sown thickly, deepening them by 1.5 cm.
How to grow strong onion seedlings Exibishen
After sowing, the seedling pots should be covered with glass or plastic wrap and placed in a warm and dark place. During the germination period, check the humidity and remove condensation from the glass.
After one and a half to two weeks, the onion will sprout, from this moment the glass or plastic greenhouse is removed, and the containers with the seedlings are placed on a sunny windowsill. In addition, every seven days it is recommended to feed seedlings with mineral fertilizers.
Treatment of the hippeastrum with preparations containing copper
At the beginning of September, the hippeastrum is dug up, since during planting it is cleaned of dry scales and treated with preparations containing copper. If this is not done, our plant can infect a red burn, which is not easy to get rid of.
We plant the bulbs that you have prepared in clean pots with a fresh mixture of soil and water well. Then we bring the plant into the house and gradually reduce watering. After the leaves of the hippeastrum turn yellow and dry, cut them off and remove the plants in a cool place, a niche under the windowsill is best suited. Where the temperature in winter hovers around plus five to ten.
The resting period of the hippeastrum lasts about three months, sometimes longer. And already at the end of January we put hippeastrum on a sunny windowsill, while without watering, and our holiday is repeated again. If, when sending them on vacation, you find a flower arrow, return them to the windowsill, and they will bloom in the fall.
Reproduction of hippeastrum
Children give hippeastrum very reluctantly, thus, if we have two plants of the same variety, we propagate as follows. Peel a large onion from scales, leaves and roots, and then wash thoroughly. Cut the upper part by a third, and divide the lower into several segments. We also divide the slices that you got into parts. Each of the lobules should have a pair of scales and a part of the bottom.
We plant in a sterile mixture of sand and peat, treating them with a fungicide. Each planting needs to be moistened and covered with a trimmed bottle of suitable size, without a cap. We regularly ventilate and monitor the humidity. small bulbs form after a couple of months. We are waiting for a couple of leaves to grow and after that we separate them from the scales. Young hippeastrum will bloom only after three years, after which they will repeat the characteristics of the variety.
With seed reproduction, usually, plants do not look like their parents and inherit not their best qualities.
If you have more than one type of hippeastrum at home, then you can dust them. This can be done when the stigma of the pistil is moist. In this case, the pollen will adhere well to it. The most interesting option will be when you cross plants of different colors.
We would love to know your opinion about this flower. Write to us in the comments.