6 of the most unpretentious fruit and berry crops to care for, which will be accepted at any dacha
There are many trees and shrubs that do not require complex maintenance during cultivation. Some of them can be planted and easily enough grown in their country house even for not very experienced gardeners.
Cherry plum is one of the most unpretentious crops. It was bred in Transcaucasia and Asia Minor, very quickly spread throughout the world, and eventually ended up in the northern countries. Cherry plum grows without problems on completely different soils - sandy and forest. Fruits of many varieties of cherry plum are unusually decorative. They are quite large and variably colored. In addition to the usual yellow cherry plum, varieties of pink, burgundy, orange or purple colors have been bred. The taste of the fruit is simply amazing, the pulp contains many vitamins, minerals and pectin. Cherry plum blooms early enough. The flowers are deliciously fresh, they bloom with the appearance of the leaves. In principle, you can even grow the crop in the northern regions, if you choose the right variety and choose the right planting site. Cherry plum loves warmth and sunshine, so place it in the southern part of your garden, preferring neutral soil. During the growing season, the tree must be constantly fed. The rest of the culture is considered completely unpretentious and very productive.
Apple tree ranetka
Ranetka can be found in many summer cottages, especially in Siberia. Ranetka apples have excellent taste and attractive appearance. They are small, rather bright in color, with a pleasant light aroma. The plant is unpretentious, with good care, it actively bears fruit for 15 years. The variety was created as a result of crossing the Siberian berry apple tree and the plum apple tree. Ranetka is rightfully considered winter-hardy and very productive. Fruits usually weigh about 15 g, are only 5 cm in diameter. They are tasty and juicy, ideal for jam because of their small size. In total, there are about a hundred completely different varieties of ranet apple trees in the world. In order for a tree to give a good harvest, before planting it, you need to carefully prepare the soil and the place for planting seedlings. The best option for planting an apple tree is as far as possible from buildings and other trees. The soil for the ranetka should not be acidic. The first year after planting, the tree is constantly watered and fed with fertilizers purchased in a specialized store.
A thousand years ago, the fruits of this unique plant began to actively spread in Europe. Walnut kernels are not only healthy and very high in calories, but also truly wonderful in taste. They can easily replace many animal products. Other parts of the plant, leaves and bark, are also used for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Walnut often grows in the mountains and can tolerate rather cold temperatures. The plant is not particularly capricious. Just do not plant it on swampy soil: the best soil for a walnut is wet loam. If you plant several trees at once, the distance between them should be at least 5 m. Another feature of growing a walnut: if the layer of fertile soil is too thin, you need constantly fertilize the plant.
There are about twenty types of hazel. In nature, they grow in North America, Europe and Asia, forming an undergrowth in coniferous-deciduous forests. The most popular among lovers of summer cottages is the type of hazelnut or common hazel. The height of the hazel bush can be up to 7 meters. The male flowers of the plant form cylindrical fluffy earrings. In the spring they bloom even before the leaves appear, giving the garden a special decorative effect. Hazel blossoms in April, its pollen is an excellent food for bees. The fruit is about 2 centimeters in diameter, beautiful brown in color, contains many nutrients. This in many ways attractive crop requires a soil rich in humus. It should be loose and light. Hazel is usually planted in the fall, the planted trees need abundant watering.
In translation from the Turkic languages, kizil means "red". This is the color of the ripe fruits of the plant. Dogwood can live up to 100 years. It is a shrub or tree several meters high. The bush has a decorative appearance and is able to give attractiveness to an old, nondescript suburban building or fence. The culture is quite unpretentious to the composition of the soil, however, if the soil is fertile, with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction, the seedling will take root faster. The bush is best planted in the open sun. Throughout the summer, the fruits of the dogwood will hang on it in green clusters, and only at the beginning of autumn they will turn red or burgundy. Berries have a tart taste and contain useful trace elements, primarily iron. They can be used to prepare compotes, jams, jellies and pie filling. The bushes are usually propagated by grafting, cuttings and rooting of cuttings. You can also buy a ready-made seedling.
This thorny plant with bright yellow berries, densely sitting on the branches, has long been a welcome guest at gardeners' dachas. The fruits of cultivated varieties of sea buckthorn are pleasant to the taste, they are sweet and sour with a light refined aroma. The berry is used in cooking, medicine and cosmetology. Moreover, the tiny seeds in the fruits are almost more valuable than the delicious juice of berries. Jelly, preserves, confitures are made from this culture and sea buckthorn oil is squeezed out. Sea buckthorn in a summer cottage is best placed away from digging zones, for example, along the road or next to a hedge. It is better to plant plants in spring and immediately to a permanent place - sunny, with light soil. Organic fertilizers can be added to the soil.
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The cultivated plant, the cucumber, belongs to the Pumpkin family. This culture is grown as an annual. In the dictionary of the German linguist J. Vasmer, the name of this plant is translated from Greek as "immature". Indeed, one of the main features of cucumbers, in contrast to all other crops of this family, is that, unlike pumpkins, melons, watermelons, etc., they are eaten when the seeds are not yet fully ripe.
Since ancient times, a fairly close connection between man and the plant world has been established. There are some species that people plant themselves, take care of the seedlings, then harvest. But in nature there are species that develop regardless of human activity. Cultivated plants, the names of which will be given below, are of particular importance to people. What are the species in this category? About this, as well as about which plants are cultivated, further in the article.
Creation of conditions for acquainting preschool children with nature at the site of a preschool education institution
Basic concepts: gardening of the site of a preschool education institution, protective plantings, decorative tree-shrub plantations, vertical gardening, lawns, flower beds, a vegetable garden, a fruit and berry garden.
In every preschool education institution there is an area where children spend a significant part of their time, especially in the warm season. A well-landscaped area is one of the most important conditions for organizing work with children to familiarize themselves with nature and ecological education of preschool children. Of particular importance is a good site in a city preschool institution, since it is often the only place where children communicate with nature for a long time.
Landscaping of the site has a sanitary and hygienic and educational and educational value.
Sanitary and hygienic value -.
? enrichment of air with oxygen reduces the content of carbon dioxide, carbohydrates and their derivatives, including carcinogenic substances, which are harmful to humans
- ? a decrease in a significant amount of dust, a decrease in its concentration in a fenced area by 2-3 times dustproof properties are possessed not only by densely crowned trees and shrubs, but also lawns, flower beds, a vegetable garden and the entire territory planted with greenery
- ? air purification from harmful microorganisms and insects high phytoncidal activity is characteristic of birch, oak, bird cherry, lilac, black currant, coniferous trees; onions, garlic, mustard, horseradish have strong bactericidal properties.The volatile substances of bird cherry kill mosquitoes, flies, midges and horseflies for several minutes
- ? mitigation of fluctuations in high summer and low winter temperatures
- ? establishment of moderate air humidity
- ? decrease in solar radiation
- ? decrease in wind strength
- ? protection of the site and the building from street noise
- ? calming effect on the child.
Educational and educational value ', a properly landscaped area of a preschool education institution is considered as a condition for upbringing and educational work with children, for solving problems of an intellectual, labor, moral and aesthetic nature with them.
Requirements for planning landscaping of the site. In the normative legal act "Sanitary rules and norms for the arrangement and maintenance of preschool institutions" in section 2 "Plot" (paragraph 2.4), it is noted that the area of green spaces should not be less than 50% of the entire territory.
All requirements can be divided into three groups.
- 1. Requirements for the organization of the landscape environment, contrast zoning of the territory of a preschool education institution a combination of open sunny space and shady areas a combination of features of the site relief with the placement of play equipment zoning of the site relief (a slope sown with grass, a plateau sprinkled with gravel, a hill with a tree or shrub on top).
- 2. Requirements for the placement of landscaping: taking into account the nature of underground and ground communications, respect and preservation of existing green spaces should not overload the site with plantings, the distance from the plantings to the building of the preschool education institution should be taken into account, the normative legal act "Sanitary rules and norms for the design and maintenance of preschool institutions" indicates that shrubs should be planted no closer than 5 m, trees no closer than 10 m from the building, groups of trees and shrubs on the site are placed taking into account sunlight so as to create a framing for sites for various purposes.
- 3. Requirements for the selection of plants for landscaping the site of a preschool institution: do not use dangerous trees and shrubs for landscaping (with harmful poisonous fruits, with thorns), plants that litter the territory of the institution during flowering, plants that attract a large number of insects, plants with variegated and brightly colored leaves should be used, having a different autumn outfit and shape crowns.
Types of landscaping of the site of a preschool education institution. Protective plantings. To protect the site of a preschool education institution from streets and roads, dense strips of trees and bushes are created on its border. Such protective plantings will decorate the site and reliably protect from wind, dust, noise, exhaust transport gases and soot. The normative legal act "Sanitary Rules and Norms for the Organization and Maintenance of Preschool Institutions" states that a strip of trees or shrubs 5 m wide should be located along the outer perimeter of the land plot. Usually, plants in a hedge are planted in one row: it is easier and cheaper, but a two-row planting is denser and, in addition, allows for a stronger and more beautiful hedge. Planting trees and shrubs in three rows is used in cases where it is necessary to create protective stripes, for example, if the site of a preschool institution opens onto a highway, into an inter-quarter or intra-quarter passage.
Ornamental trees and shrubs. Trees and shrubs determine the appearance of the site, give it relief and volume. Types of decorative tree and shrub plantations: linear (alleys, trellises), group (homogeneous, mixed), single plantings.
Vertical gardening. In the design of the site, vertical gardening is of great importance. It consists in decorating the facades of buildings, balconies, fences, arches, pergolas with climbing plants (a gazebo entwined with greenery or a corridor made of light lattices on pillars or arches), in the creation of flower pyramids and columns. Vertical gardening will make it possible to increase the area under green spaces, isolate playgrounds for various purposes from each other, shade places for children's activities, and protect them from the wind. For vertical gardening, grapes, clematis, herbaceous plants (sweet peas, morning glory, nasturtium) are widely used.
Lawn Is an area with natural or artificially created closed grassy cover. It serves as a background on which the rest of the elements, both plant and artistic and architectural, are located. It can be used for landscaping near a flower garden, pool, gazebo. The green color of the lawn has a beneficial effect on children, reduces excitement, and gives rest to tired eyes.
Types of lawns: flowering (Moorish and variegated) cereal (parterre and meadow).
Floral and decorative plantings. On the site, ornamental plants are usually located in several places: at the entrance, along the paths, near the building, on playgrounds, etc.
Requirements for flower gardens: for a flower garden, plants are selected that could bloom from early spring to late autumn, the plants must be unpretentious, i.e. ns require complex care in order for the previously specified conditions to be met, you should choose annual, biennial and perennial plants for the flower garden. The beauty and grace of the flower garden depends on the selection of plants for color.
Types of flower beds: flower bed, parterre, border, rabatka, flower arrangement, alpine slide, mixboards.
Garden. Depending on the size of the land plot and the number of children, the vegetable garden may be common for all groups and separate for each of them.
The place for it is chosen open, sunny, protected from the north side by buildings, a fence or a hedge.
In the garden, beds with a length of 2.5-3 m are broken.This length allows you to place all children along them during sowing, examining seedlings, growing seedlings, etc. The width of the bed should be no more than 70 cm, so that preschoolers can reach the middle of the bed with their hand during work. The height of the ridges depends on the characteristics of the soil and the climate of the area. The distance between the beds is 50-60 cm, and the width of the main paths of the garden is 1 m.
For growing on the site, you should take crops that are unpretentious to the soil and easy to care for, quickly sprout, grow and ripen, are interesting to observe: for children of younger preschool age, crops are selected in which the seeds and bulbs are large enough for children to plant them themselves, for example, onions, peas, beans, radishes: for children of middle preschool age, the same vegetable crops are selected as in the younger group, however, to form ideas about the diversity of plants, about their features, you should additionally plant different varieties of onions, lettuce, radishes, zucchini: for older preschool children, a variety of crops are selected: green crops (sorrel, dill, lettuce, rhubarb, asparagus), spicy-flavored (peppermint, caraway, lovage, etc.), onions (spring onion, onion , chives, garlic), cabbage (white cabbage, kohlrabi, cauliflower, etc.), fruit (zucchini, pumpkin, cucumber, tomato, melon, etc.), root and tubers (carrots, turnips, radish, beet la, rutabaga, potatoes), legumes and corn (peas, beans, sweet corn), cereals (wheat, rye, barley, oats).
Fruit and berry garden. For the garden, you should choose areas protected from the wind, use elevated areas to avoid excessive soil moisture. For planting, it is necessary to select the most unpretentious fruit and berry plants that develop well in a given area: fruit crops (apple, pear, cherry), berry crops (garden strawberries, currants - black, red, white), thornless varieties of raspberries, blackberries.
Questions and tasks for self-control
- 1. Make a list of plants for a variegated lawn.
- 2. What plants can you recommend for this type of flower garden,
3. For the flower garden there is a selection of plants by color in accordance with the law of harmonic contrasts and the law of harmony of colors. What is their essence?
FRUIT AND BERRY CROPS
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Columnar cherry according to reviews and descriptions is an unpretentious variety. But this does not mean that you need to forget about the planted plant. In order for it to bear fruit well, it is important to timely water, fertilize, prune and prevent diseases.
Watering and feeding schedule
Since the root system of a tree is superficial, it cannot extract moisture from the bowels of the earth. Therefore, a young seedling is watered 1-2 times every 14 days. In dry summers, irrigation is carried out weekly. At least 10 liters of water are consumed per plant. An adult, mature tree is watered 4 times a season:
- during flowering
- during the period of fruit formation
- after harvest
- in the fall, before the onset of cold weather.
Top dressing is carried out during the growing season. To do this, use nitrogenous fertilizers, diluted strictly according to the instructions. During the flowering period, a universal complex is introduced under the tree. After harvesting, the tree is fed with phosphorus-potassium dressings.
Cherry Delight is a columnar variety, so the tree does not need formative pruning. It grows almost vertically without forming side shoots. But every spring, the tree must be examined and dry, not overwintered, disease-damaged shoots must be removed. The procedure is carried out with a sharp, sterile instrument, the cut is treated with garden pitch.
Preparing for winter
Since columnar varieties are not highly frost-resistant, the plant must be prepared and covered for the winter. To do this, a month before the onset of cold weather, the soil is abundantly shed and mulched with straw, foliage, rotted humus or compost. A week before the first frost, the crown is wrapped with agrofibre, burlap or spandex. To protect against rodents, a metal frame is installed or the trunk is wrapped in a net.
What fruit and berry bushes will decorate the garden
Many people know that raspberries have exceptional health benefits. This berry has a lot of advantages and it is simply necessary in the garden. Most of us find it hard to believe that raspberry bushes grew in forests and only a couple of centuries later they began to plant them in garden plots. Raspberry is a shrub that bears fruit, depending on the variety, with red, yellow or purple-black berries.
Raspberry varieties are distinguished by early, middle or late ripening. Raspberry bushes easily adapt to your favorite conditions. And only among a small number of shortcomings is its low yield.
These are the most common shrubs in garden plots. Currant berries have a delicious taste and extremely useful properties. The bushes are very easy to care for and give good yields.
Among the varieties, black currants are distinguished, of early, late ripening. Red currants are characterized by weighty bunches of berries. White currant is in no way inferior in taste to red. There are also hybrid varieties that are bred by crossing gooseberries and currants.
Or as it is also called the northern grapes, a very unpretentious culture that gives good yields. Gooseberry bushes are very fond of illuminated areas, but they are afraid of shade and waterlogging. Gooseberries are found in almost all regions of our country.
Shrubs begin to bear fruit from the third year. They give green, yellow or reddish-brown berries. Distinguish between European varieties, which are characterized by high taste. American varieties that are not afraid of drought, and which produce an excellent harvest. And hybrid varieties that incorporate the best characteristics of other varieties. Gooseberries are not afraid of drought.
Blueberries are considered a rare berry, much more common in the wild. But this berry is gaining its popularity in garden plots. With proper care, you can get a good harvest of these berries.
The tall varieties are beautiful as hedges, the bushes are branched, and the berries are intense blue or blue. The undersized blueberry is particularly lush in spring and produces excellent yields. And the southern varieties are obtained by hybridization for an arid climate.
Previously, blackberries were found exclusively in the wild, but now they can also be found in garden plots.
With its taste and healing properties, blackberries are ahead of even raspberries.
Blackberry bushes were not so popular because of their sharp thorns, but thanks to selection, varieties without thorns appeared.
Blackberries are similar to raspberries, but they are black in color and have a slightly sour taste.
Among the varieties, erect blackberries are distinguished, which is considered the most common. Its bushes give a good harvest and significantly save space on the site. Semi-creeping varieties are extremely rare, but experienced gardeners recommend this particular variety of blackberries.
Sea buckthorn is more common in water bodies, which is why it is also called a sea thorn. An experienced gardener can grow sea buckthorn on his site. And the use of berries for medicinal purposes is very wide. Sea buckthorn oil is especially appreciated.
Did you know what exactly the edible honeysuckle varieties are called "rejuvenating berries". And this is no accident, because these berries contain selenium - an element of youth. Honeysuckle bushes have beautiful flowers, which is why they are planted for decorative purposes. But the berry itself is a rich source of vitamins.
Among the varieties of honeysuckle, long-fruited varieties are distinguished. These are medium-sized bushes, with a cylindrical shape of berries. Hybrid varieties were bred by breeders and mid-late varieties, the harvest from which can be obtained until late autumn.
Fruit crops classification systems [edit | edit code]
According to the morphological features of the aboveground part, its size and durability, all fruit plants are divided into the following groups (biological forms) :
Tree-like, or woody. This group is made up of fruit plants with a powerful trunk (breadfruit, mango, lychee, longan, sheddock, walnut, pecan, cherry, etc.), as well as smaller trees with a less pronounced trunk (orange, avocado, guava, apple, apricot ). These plants are the most durable, late into fruiting.
Perennial non-woody. The group includes species Carica including cultural view Carica papaya (papaya, melon tree, frutabomba).
Bushy. They have several trunks or one weakly expressed (coffee, carambola, sapote, citron, lime, bushy cherry varieties, pomegranate, hazel, dogwood, etc.). Compared to trees, they are less durable, faster entry into the fruiting period.
Shrubs. The above-ground system is a low bush of several equivalent zero-order branches. Capable of underground renewal of the main stem axes. Fast-growing, less durable (currants, gooseberries, etc.)
Liana - perennial woody climbing fruit plants (lemongrass, actinidia, grapes, passionflower, coffee (section Agocoffea)).
Perennial herbaceous plants. They do not have woody aboveground axes, so shoots often spread along the ground (strawberries, cranberries, cloudberries, drupes, banana), as well as succulent ones: pineapple, fruit cacti ( Opuntia , Cereus , Hylocereus , Lemaireocerus ). They have fleshy organs (stems, leaves) that store water.
Palm trees. Monocotyledonous perennial plants with a woody stem, usually unbranched (oil, coconut, date, areca palm, sugar, wine, herring). At the top of the stem is a rosette of large, strongly dissected leaves.
Classification by botanical composition and production and biological indicators
In practical fruit growing, the generally accepted biological and industrial classification of fruit and berry crops, based on the requirements of fruit species to the conditions of growth and distribution zoning, nutritional and technological value of fruits and products of their processing, morphological similarity of fruits to each other and other characteristics. The division of fruit species into groups adopted in fruit growing often does not coincide with the botanical classification. The following production and biological groups of fruit plants are distinguished :
Stone fruits. Plants belonging to the subfamily Plum of the Pink family: peach, apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, cherry plum, blackthorn, etc.
Berry. Fruit species of all fruit growing zones from different botanical families. The uniting beginning of the group is juicy berry-like fruits that usually do not withstand long-term storage and are often poorly transportable: strawberries, currants, gooseberries, raspberries, blackberries, viburnum, sea buckthorn, blueberries, edible honeysuckle, lingonberries, Ceylon currants, star berry plants, etc. valuable wild ones.
Walnut. Fruit breeds and wild plants of all fruit growing zones from different botanical families, forming fruits - nuts and dry drupes, for which they are grown: walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, hazelnuts, pistachio, chestnut, hazel, beech, I think, Brazil nut, macadamia, cedar pines, drank, pakhira.
Oilseeds. Fruit species of tropical and subtropical zones that provide fatty oils for human nutrition: oil palm, coconut palm, olive.
Toning and spicy. Fruit crops and wild plants of various botanical families of all fruit growing zones, which give a person tonic substances (caffeine, bromelin, arecolin, etc.), which maintain a vigorous state of the body without serious consequences. The main form of intake of such substances are drinks - tea, coffee, cocoa, etc. Tonic perennial plants include coffee, cocoa, cola, tea, guarana, areca palm, schisandra, coca bush, kata, etc. Spicy fruit crops include cloves tree, nutmeg, star anise, etc.
Citrus. Evergreens of the subfamily Pomerances, of the Rut family. All cultivated species belong to three genera: citrus, fortunella, poncirus. The group includes the following plants: orange, tangerine, lemon, lime, grapefruit, sheddock, citron, tripoliata, citrange, kinkan, etc.
Diverse subtropical and temperate zones. Deciduous and evergreen fruit crops from different botanical families: persimmon, pomegranate, figs, unabi, eriobotria, dogwood, feijoa, sucker, carob, mulberry, strawberry tree, laurel cherry, govenia.
Grape. Plants belonging to the grape family, among which the genus Vitis , including about 70 species. Cultivated for wine, table grapes and drying in temperate, subtropical and tropical zones.
In addition to the above classifications in the literature on fruit growing, there is a division of fruit plants, depending on the structure of fruits and seeds, into 2 main groups: plants with juicy and dry fruits (nuts) (or juicy and hard fruits). In addition, they are also divided into industrial crops, promising crops and wild fruit breeds.