Grouse flower: varieties and features of reproduction
Fritillaria (lat.Fritillaria) in our area are better known as hazel grouses. They received their popular name for a special variegated or, as they say, pockmarked color of the petals of some varieties.
The flowers of hazel grouses of different varieties differ not only in color, but also in shape. Most of the flowers of hazel grouse are red, orange or yellow, but there are varieties of other shades - white and even greenish. The shape of the flowers may be bell-like or lily-shaped. And the flowers can be both inflorescences and single specimens.
The variety of hazel grouses in nature
In nature, there are about 100 species of fritillaria, but in our latitudes only a fourth of them grows - about 25 species. The mountain alpine climate is more suitable for these flowers, that is, mild, non-frosty winters and cool summers. And our latitudes differ in a completely different climate. But even the number of species and varieties that are cultivated in our country allows us to appreciate the variety of varieties of hazel grouse.
There is even a special, our local species of wild hazel grouse. This is Russian hazel grouse. It grows in nature on the territory of Ukraine and the European part of Russia. But this is a rare type of flower included in the Red Book of Russia. Of the hazel grouses growing wild in Russia and Ukraine, in addition to Russian, one can name such species as Kamchatka hazel grouse, Caucasian hazel grouse, Maximovich hazel grouse, and chess hazel grouse. Meanwhile, breeders continue to develop new varieties of hazel grouses, such as hazel grouse, grouse Valuev, hazel grouse Radde, hazel grouse imperial and many others.
Unusual features of the flower
Cultivated varieties of hazel grouse usually have large flowers, but in nature the flowers are much smaller. Such "guests of forests and meadows" are usually very tender, difficult to grow and store.
And yet hazel grouses are amazing flowers: their worst drawback is an unpleasant smell, and that can be turned into a dignity: it helps to drive small rodents from the beds - mice, moles, shrews, which cannot stand the smell of hazel grouses.
Reproduction of hazel grouse
Grouse can be propagated both by seeds and traditionally by bulb babies. The second (bulbous) method is much more reliable, faster and more efficient.
But the seeds also give quite viable shoots, although it must be borne in mind that they must be sown immediately after ripening and collection, since fritillaria seeds quickly lose their germination, while fresh seed of good quality germinates next spring. It is interesting that the seedlings die off after 5-6 weeks of life, but during this time small onions have time to set, which must be grown in a greenhouse before planting hazel grouses in a permanent place.
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Grouse - spring flower: description, varieties and care rules
- Full photo
Description and features of the flower
Types and varieties of hazel grouse
Growing grouse and caring for them
Breeding methods for hazel grouse
Diseases and pests of hazel grouse
Grouse is a flower from the Liliaceae family; it is one of the most beautiful spring flowers. He is the first to please gardeners, since it begins to bloom already in April - early May, hazel grouses look especially beautiful when planted next to tulips. The Latin name of this flower is Fritillaria, from the Latin language it translates as "a glass for dice" - the plant got this name because of the special shape of the bud.
These indoor flowers do not differ in a large variety of forms. The main differences between the varieties are the shape and color of the leaves, as well as the shade of the buds. Basically, the varieties are flowering, but there are also decorative leafy specimens. The most popular types:
- Mona Lisa. Ampel perennial up to 60 cm tall with leaves of a rich green hue. The leaf blade is long, elongated, bent downwards. A light streak is visible on the surface, which divides the plate into two equal parts. The buds are red or lilac.
- Lobba (Handsome). The ampel form is about 30-50 cm in height. Stems are flexible, reddish or purple in color. The leaves are small, grow densely, form a lush crown, have an oval or ovoid shape. Lighter below. The flowers are red or peachy.
- Marble. This variety is distinguished by the color of the leaves. They are dark green, covered with a dense waxy bloom, red underneath, small light yellow veins on the surface. Plant height up to 60 cm, practically does not bloom at home.
- Twister. Low bush up to 40 cm tall with long stems. The leaves are small, up to 3 cm long, bent towards the shoot so that they look like curls. The surface is waxy, the leaves are crimson. It blooms with bright red or orange buds, gathered in bunches.
- Great. At home, it reaches 60 cm in height, ampelous form, shoots are small, soft, hanging, woody at the base with age. Have dense foliage. The leaves are long, with a pointed end, up to 10 cm long. Blooms up to six months with small bright yellow-red buds.
If more exotic varieties that are difficult to grow at home - Tricolor. Climbing ampel plant Caroline has an interesting color of leaves, and very unusual buds of a burgundy hue, similar to curved gramophones.
Species of hazel grouse
The classification of fritillaria is rather complicated, so we will focus only on the most interesting varieties and varieties.
Grouse Imperial (Royal)
This exotic plant invariably causes delight and admiration among gardeners. The imperial hazel grouse flower is dazzlingly beautiful and stands out among the spring-growers for its enormous growth and the cap of beautiful bells. The trunk height is often more than 1 meter, and the bulb can reach 20 cm in circumference and weigh more than a kilogram.
- Prolifera - distinguished by a double row of orange flowers. This makes the plant look fabulous.
- Orange Brilliant - orange exotic
- Aurora - hazel grouse is short, only 60 cm, but has large and catchy orange buds
- Flava - yellow-flowered form
- Maxima Rubra - bright red flowers
- Lutea (Mary's Tears) is an orange variety.
Any of these varieties are so beautiful that it is impossible to take your eyes off. How the Royal hazel grouse blooms is shown in the photo.
Imperial fritillaria begins vegetation very early. Already at the end of April, dark green shoots, similar to arrows, appear from the ground. They grow quickly and reach a meter in height by mid-May. The leaves of the grouse plant are grouped at the bottom of the stem and at the top, where bright buds appear by the end of May.
It is interesting. The flowering of Royal Fritillaria lasts about 20 days, a little longer in cool weather.
Having finished the growing season, the stems and leaves of the hazel grouse turn yellow, and boxes with seeds appear in place of the flowers. The bulbs begin to ripen after the leaves have lodged.
In addition to the Imperial, there are other, no less beautiful and popular species of hazel grouse. Maybe they are not so majestic, but gentle and refined.
The plant is 25–35 cm high. The flower is bell-shaped, usually single, of a burgundy color with a speckled pattern. The cultural form has several varieties - white-flowered and terry. The plant propagates by bulbs and seeds. The unusual color of the hazel grouse is shown in the photo. The variety is unpretentious.
This cute and diminutive plant barely reaches 20 cm. Burgundy flowers with golden edging attract everyone's attention. The dense and smooth petals shine in a way that reflects the sun. I just want to look in them like in a mirror. The variety is not cold-resistant enough, in a harsh winter it can freeze out.
Russian hazel grouse
The plant does not exceed 40 cm. Up to four flowers appear on one stem in the form of an inverted bell. In the photo of Russian hazel grouse, you can clearly see how the upper leaves twist with antennae, helping the flower to cling to the bushes growing nearby.
A very peculiar plant up to 1 meter high. The trunk is literally covered with small bell flowers. On one shoot there can be 25–30 of them. The variety is very fond of warmth and rarely blooms in regions with a temperate climate. The photo of Persian hazel grouse shows how original the flower is and does not look like its fellows.
Another interesting variety. The graceful plant, 50 cm high, has a single flower of a rich purple color with bright yellow stamens. Unlike other hazel grouses, it prefers damp, peat-rich places. A bulb with a diameter of 5 cm consists of small, pattern-sized, replacing scales.
Use in the garden
Widespread phacelia as a siderat. Siderata are crops that are used for sowing on poor, problematic soils in order to improve their performance. Phacelia is considered the leader among such plantings. The roots of the culture perfectly loosen the earth, make it free-flowing. Due to the rapid decomposition of the stems, humus is formed, this contributes to the enrichment of the soil with organic and nutrient substances. Having performed such a sowing, for 3-4 years it is allowed to grow legumes, root crops and vegetables on the site without additional dressing.
Also, plantings of culture provide a phytosanitary effect:
- Adjusting the acidity level of the soil... The plant reduces this indicator, promotes the growth of vegetable crops, inhibits the development of weeds.
- Scaring away pests... The healing properties of phacelia for the garden are manifested in the fact that it repels locusts, wireworms, and other insects that harm garden and vegetable crops.
- Attracting bees... The culture blooms for a long period, thereby attracting bees.
Fritillaria: photo and description of varieties
The Russian name for the flower comes from one of its varieties, which looks like a large, variegated bell. For this variegation he was nicknamed hazel grouse. Now this variety is called chess hazel grouse. But in general, the plant has many species and varieties, and some of them are not very similar to each other.
This species resembles a miniature palm tree: at the top of the stem, a panicle of elongated, pointed leaves is spread in different directions, under which there is a corolla of bright flowers, similar to bells. Their color is bright orange, red, yellow. The imperial hazel grouse grows up to 1 m.
The plant resembles a three-headed tulip. Only its flowers are inclined downward, like all hazel grouses. It grows about 20 cm. Petals are two-colored maroon at the base and yellow at the edges.
This species looks like a graceful bell with one, rarely two, green-colored flowers with purple spots at the base. It grows up to 30 - 40 cm. Sometimes up to half a meter. The Latin name of the plant is Acmopetala.
By peganum from Henfield, England - Fritillaria acmopetala
Uploaded by Orchi, CC BY-SA 2.0, Link
It grows up to 1 m. The plant is solid, with a long thick stem from the bottom covered with narrow pointed leaves, and in the upper part a cone of many flowers appears, which bloom alternately, tier by tier, from bottom to top. One plant can have up to 30 dark purple flowers.
It grows up to 30 - 35 cm, looks like a large bell with a rather interesting color. It was from this variety that the name "hazel grouse" came from, because the petals alternate between small, dark and light spots, like on a chessboard. The color itself can be magenta, blue, or purple. There are also pure white varieties. On one plant, there is usually one flower, rarely two.
Grouse belongs to bulbous plants and its cultivation, care and reproduction is largely reduced to caring for the bulbs directly, the focus of its life.
Disembarkation takes place from late August to October. It is important to have time before the cold weather so that the bulb has time to take root well, otherwise only greens will grow next year, but without flowers.
In the spring, at the end of April, the first feeding is carried out, the plant grows, then begins to bloom. Depending on the variety and weather, flowering may begin as early as the last days of April, but it also happens at the end of May or early June. Most often in May, together with tulips, daffodils and other early flowers.
When the flowering ends, the greens of some species, for example, the imperial hazel grouse, can decorate the site for some time. But as soon as the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off, the stem must be cut off and the bulb must be dug out. Only carefully, this creature is very vulnerable, and in case of damage it may refuse to bloom next year.
The bulb must be carefully washed in warm water, dried and sent for storage until autumn planting. If the injuries could not be avoided or the rotten spots had to be cut out, then the damaged areas can be healed by sprinkling them with wood ash. The bulbs are stored in a well-ventilated room, it is possible in the attic, the main thing is that the temperature there does not exceed 30 degrees.
During storage, the bulbs begin to take root, they need to be monitored so that they do not dry out and rot.
In autumn, when planting, it is recommended to pour coarse sand into each hole to drain excess moisture.
Location, lighting, humidity
Prefers open, dry places, in the sun or in partial shade. Better on a hill, but by no means in a low place.
The land should be fertile, but loose and light, it is advisable to add peat. The hazel grouse does not tolerate excess moisture, from this its bulbs can rot and the plant will become sick, or even die. So either a sufficiently dry place is needed, or good drainage or embankment is needed.
At the same time, the plant still needs a little moisture, and even after the flowering stops, the bulbs should not end up in the dry ground. On average, you need to water 1 or 2 times a month.
Grouse is fed with dry fertilizers. The first time - at the end of April, the second - after it has finished blooming. If desired, you can feed it during flowering with wood ash. First, ash is poured onto the soil, and then - peat or humus with a layer of about 3 cm.
Reproduction methods are quite traditional for bulbous ones: dividing bulbs, planting seeds, raising children (more details here).
Cold resistance is good, the bulbs successfully overwinter in the ground, especially if, after planting, sprinkle the ground above them with a layer of peat, about 3 - 5 cm.
Diseases and pests
Despite the fact that many pests of hazel grouse are able to scare off with their pungent smell, nevertheless, they can find their eaters on it. These are ubiquitous slugs, as well as specific ones like a lily beetle or an onion cracker. To get rid of them, bioinsecticides are used - Fitoverm, BTB, Lepidocide.
Fritillaria and rust are affected, in this case it is necessary to remove the damaged leaves and treat the plant with biofungicides.
Excess moisture or nitrogen fertilizers in the soil are also dangerous for the plant, this can lead to rotting of the bulbs.
Growing hazel grouses: how to care for flowers
If the hazel grouse is good in the garden, he does not get sick.And pests do not have time to activate by the time of its flowering. The main thing in care when growing hazel grouses is to ensure good drainage so that the site is not subject to stagnant moisture.
Low-growing species of hazel grouse are appropriate in the rock garden: they create a contrast to the cushion-shaped alpine plants. The combination with dwarf conifers is also successful.
Many species of hazel grouse form daughter bulbs, some (Kamchatka) can be propagated, like lilies, with scales. But there are also aristocrats who reproduce exclusively by seeds (seeds are sown before winter). When growing flowers of hazel grouse from flowering seeds, you can wait only a few years after sowing.
It is necessary to buy and plant hazel grouse bulbs in late August - early September. Often, hazel grouses are sold in the spring, already in bloom. Bulbs removed from the soil at the height of the growing season and left without nutrients will not have time to ripen and will weaken. Flowering will have to wait at least two years.
Florists should be warned against buying Persian hazel grouse (F. persica). Not only does it require summer heating, it is also not winter-hardy enough and is suitable only for southern regions.